:: March 2019 Letter ::
Useful phrase for Boeing people in China: ZhŤ gāo yķ wǒ de gōngzī děngjŪ. If Google Translate works, thatís mandarin for ďThatís above my pay grade.Ē Over the past few weeks, Boeingís China situation has deteriorated markedly, for reasons that are largely out of the companyís control, adding to the companyís woes after the Ethiopian 737MAX tragedy. Thereís not much they can do, and since China is their biggest export market, thereís a lot at stake.
Losing China might be an emerging black swan event for Boeing, an event that might be obscured by the 737MAX situation, and accelerated by it too. In the aftermath of the second crash, Chinaís CAAC became the first regulatory agency to ground the MAX. The CAAC is well within its rights on this, but grounding a jet 19 hours after an accident means there was no process, investigation, or evidence involved in the decision.
Also, there is no separation between CAAC and the rest of the Chinese Government (including COMAC). Given everything else going on between the US and China (see below), the CAACís motivations are open to question. Any doubts about the politicization of this process were removed two weeks later, when the CAAC stopped taking applications for MAX certification. This was meaningless from a regulatory standpoint, but a great way to signal displeasure.
March also saw President Xi announce a Chinese order for 300 Airbuses. Ominously for Boeing, Chinaís order was rumored last year to be for just 180 Airbuses, not 300. Airbusís backlog for Chinese customers (without this 300) is 168, including 31 for Chinese lessors. Boeingís China backlog stands at 122 aircraft. But 104 of these are MAXs, which cannot be imported until the CAAC lifts its airworthiness certification ban. Until then, the backlog is effectively 18 planes, a multi-decade low, while Airbusís is 468. Since the Airbus-Boeing situation in China has been 50-50 for many years, this is a notable departure.
To understand the Boeing China situation, consider the other issues between the US and China, issues well out of Boeingís control. Consider these key four issues:
1. The US-China Trade Confrontation. It would be impossible for Boeing to not be wrapped up in this giant mess, involving trade barriers, IP disputes, and tariffs. We may see a breakthrough in a few days or weeks; or we may see an impasse and a steady deterioration of trade relations. Either way, Boeing will be part of the headlines. After all, jetliners are the USís biggest manufactured export, and itís hard to see any other large products China would buy to make the US happy. To look at it the other way, itís hard to see what the Chinese would conspicuously not buy to signal their displeasure.
2. The US Navy in the Taiwan Strait. Before last July, the US sailed a ship through the strait around once a year; since July, there have been six such cruises, to counteract Chinaís aggressive naval posturing. Taiwan has always been a sticking point for China and the US, but the problem is worsening. I recently subjected myself to Operation Red Sea, a 2018 Chinese blockbuster. Itís like a fictional Black Hawk Down, but with Chinese special forces battling Arabs. Itís a relatively harmless nationalist fantasy, except at the very end, when, apropos of nothing, a Chinese naval force is shown confronting US ships, ordering them to leave Chinese waters immediately. Like the CAAC, Chinaís film industry is basically part of the government, and it seems to be spoiling for a fight over Taiwan.
3. Taiwan Fighter sale (and more). The US hasnít sold new fighter planes to Taiwan in around 25 years, but the Trump Administration is about to greenlight 60+ F-16Vs, on top of 140 upgrades for the existing fleet (Boeing can be thankful they didnít ask for F/A-18s). An M1 tank sale may be approved too. In Washington, there seems to be a bipartisan consensus that itís time to stand up to China in the South China Sea. Meanwhile, the Taiwanese Air Force is aging to the point of obsolescence, necessitating some kind of sales. The PRC, predictably, is unhappy.
4. Huawei. I canít begin to scratch the surface here, but the confrontation between the US and China over this telecoms giant dwarfs anything aerospace-related between the two countries. In January, the US filed fraud, obstruction of justice, and theft of trade secrets against Huawei, and one top executive is under arrest in Canada (predictably, the Trump administration has done little to back Canada against the inevitable retaliatory moves). As the March Aviation Strategy notes, Huaweiís revenues are now around $100 billion, or about the same as Boeingís revenues. Itís easy to see Chinaís anti-Boeing moves as a form of symmetric retaliation.
For Boeing in China, all is not lost, despite this toxic soup of exogenous factors. While larger than expected, some kind of Airbus order was bound to happen on President Xiís European trip, as part of Chinaís broader effort to sell its One Belt, One Road initiative to the EU. Itís possible that a US-China breakthrough trade agreement includes a large number of Boeings (MAXs or otherwise). The 300-aircraft Airbus order includes just ten twin aisles (A350s), so thereís plenty of scope for a Boeing twin aisle order. That Airbus China backlog sounds large, but China imports around 300-400 jets each year, so thereís plenty of room for Boeings too. If Airbus gets all of the China market, theyíll increase prices, perhaps leading to a Chinese shift back to Boeing.
Also, there are 942 737MAX orders (and 566 A320neo orders) that are for undisclosed customers, and many could be for Chinese carriers waiting for their government to officially take credit for delivering these orders. Both models also have many lessor orders, and some of these could be destined for Chinese carriers too. In short, thereís no reason that Boeing canít recover to its historical 50% China market share.
Itís also possible, however, that US-China relations worsen, with Boeing suffering further collateral damage. As I argued in my February 2017 letter, Boeing might want to re-think its close relationship with President Trump. This coziness has certainly paid dividends, but it makes the company an even easier target for retaliation, particularly since the Trump administration has made China tariffs and trade negotiations a very high priority. But thereís not much else the company can do, particularly since it has its hands full right now dealing with the 737MAX.
Yours, ĎTil Taiwan Asks Trump For B-21s,
© Richard Aboulafia 1997-2006, All rights reserved.